Thursday, 20 February 2014

Note Making for students


It is important for students of all grades and subjects to develop skills in note making and note taking.  Although the CBSE specifically introduces Note Making in Grade Eleven followed by the addition of the writing of the summary in grade Twelve it would be a good idea to develop the skills in earlier grades. The target grades in which note making could be introduced include grades eight to ten.

Learning Tasks:

1.The whole passage is read quickly and then the student tries to identify the Key Paragraph that contains the Nucleus Sentence. It is from the key paragraph that the student is also able to draw a title. In many cases, the key paragraph might be the first paragraph.
2.The passage is then divided into headings and sub headings.
3.Supporting sub-points are then listed in a numerical order (1, 2, 3 under the first heading, then 1, 2, 3…etc. In some cases, there might be  sub-sub points where a  points might be listed as: 1.1., 1.2., and sub-sub-sub 1.1.1., 1.1.2., 1.1.3., …etc. depending how these sub-sub points develop .
4.The students will use recognizable abbreviations and symbols in order to write down the notes in a contracted form.
5. The next task, following the note making exercise will include the drafting of the summary based strictly on the notes prepared by the student. The student should note that the word limit should not be exceeded as marks will be deducted. Also, students should avoid repetition of ideas, and make good use of sentence connectors to join sentences, thus avoided too many repetitions of words.
The marks distribution for the twelfth board CBSE paper is as follows:
1.       Title: 1 mark
2.       Notes ( at least three headings and the notes under them) : 3 marks
3.       List of abbreviations (minimum 4): 1 mark
4.       Summary: 3 marks

Important: the final notes will be in the form of a linear listing of points, or in a branched format. A typical note taking exercise in the linear format will look as follows:

Title:
1. Nucleus Sentence
   1.1 sub- point
   1.2 sub- point
   1.3 sub- point
2. Topic Sentence
   2.1 sub- point
   2.2 sub- point
   2.3 sub- point
3. Topic Sentence
   3.1 sub- point
   3.2 sub- point…and so on.


Important Tips
The length of the notes will depend upon the length of the passage. The student will avoid noting down points which are being repeated for the sake of brevity. Also use recognizable abbreviations, and avoid the use of articles, prepositions and conjunctions. This, however does not mean that your notes are vague to the reader. Your notes should make sense to the examiner when he or she goes through them. Also remember that you are not allowed to use sentences in notemaking. You need to identify the main points and not entire sentences. You need to have a minimum of three main headings. You need to have a minimum of four abbreviations. Remember to indent the notes properly.


Standard recognizable abbreviations  for countries include: U.P. U.K.
Standard abbreviations for titles include: Mr, Mrs, Ms, Dr, Messrs...etc
Common symbols include: &, +ve, -ve, >,<, ...etc
Common measurements: kg, lb, sq.ft. mm, ml, ...etc.



The Passage given below is in the form of an example. Go through it carefully and see how the Headings have been listed followed by their supporting value points:


Strategic planning is typically thought of in terms of how large businesses and nations design a plan of action to accomplish their specific goals -- but it is a fabulous tool for individuals as well. If you find yourself disappointed by your life, consider taking a look at how strategically you are living it.
Some people worry that being strategic is about being manipulative. Certainly there is a fine balance between passivity and trying to live life according to the "my way or the highway" approach to influencing the course of events. I think of being strategic as actively engaging in shaping and directing your life. It is about being thoughtful, careful, and purposeful -- the antithesis of simply drifting along being caught up in whatever situations and circumstances you happen to bump into in the course of your life. Strategic living means being smart enough to embrace the opportunity of playing an active role in determining what you are creating, promoting and allowing in your life.
If you were investing in a business, wouldn't you want to know that it was being run by individuals who were well versed regarding the opportunities and challenges they faced? Wouldn't you want them to use their resources (people, money and time) in such a way that they maximized the company's short- and long-term return on investment? Most likely, it would be important to you that these returns be measured not just in terms of money, but relative to such other factors as alignment with the company's mission, and their commitment to such values as integrity, social consciousness and the quality of their relationships with employees and other stakeholders.
Now, let's apply this thinking to how you assess your own life choices. Being strategic is about getting off autopilot behaviour and being thoughtful about the choices you make in your life. It means living within the context of having a good understanding of who you are, what matters to you, and what resources and options you have available.
As a life coach, I work with this perspective as a means of increasing my clients' self-awareness, wellbeing, enjoyment and creative self-empowerment. Making thoughtful and strategic choices about how you live your life can have an enormous impact on your level of satisfaction and enjoyment.

There are three fundamental, on-going, and interrelated activities involved in strategically living your life. They are: creating a plan, keeping track of results and altering your course based on those results and the unanticipated surprises life brings your way. A good strategist needs a great sense of humour and an appreciation for the power of the unknown because no matter how thoughtful and thorough your planning techniques, life will throw you curve balls. It's humbling, but the alternative of having no plan means being at the effect of your life rather than being an active participant and driving force.

Our lives tend to be very complex and to include conflicting priorities and demands on our time. A seasoned life strategist is like a juggler trying to simultaneously stay on course with specific plans for each major aspect of his or her life. For example, you might have plans for your spiritual life, family, career, finances, etc. For a novice planner, I suggest picking the one area of your life where you are experiencing the greatest challenges and starting there. As you stabilize one area of your life, develop a plan for another aspect and learn to develop skill in making the trade-offs that are necessary between the various aspects of your life.
(This Article, written by Judith Johnson was posted on “The Blog, Huff post Healthy Living” on 09/26/2013 12:17 pm)

Task 1: Identifying a suitable title from the passage

The importance of Strategic Planning

Task 2: write down notes under each heading from the passage

1. What is Strategic planning?
  1. 1plan of action
  1.2 tool for large org. & nations
  1.3 tool for ind.
2. Why is Strategic Planning important for people?
  2.1 helps  bal. b/w passivity & trying to live acc.
  2.2 antithesis to simply drifting
  2.3 smartness to embrace opportunities

3. Importance of Strategic planning in Business
   3.1 provides knowledge about employees
   3.2 maximise short/long term investments
4. Three fundamental steps in Strategic Planning
    4.1 creating a plan
    4.2 keeping track of results
    4.3 altering course based on results
5.  How can we plan for complexities in life?
    5.1 pick one area of life which is most challenged
    5.2 start planning for it
    5.3 when you stabilize that area, dev. plan for another aspect
    5.4 learn to dev. Skills in making trade-offs b/w various aspects of life


One example of the branched format for note making is given as under:

Title: Strategic Planning



There are interesting ways of making notes, but then if it is about appearing for a specific exam, then the student will have to enquire about the formats that will be accepted by the examiner. Generally, the CBSE accepts the linear form of making notes.



Task 3: draw a list or key for the abbreviations used by you

List of abbreviations:
1.b/w   :  between
2.ind.  :  individual
3. acc  :  according
4. dev. :  develop
5. inv.  :  investment
Task 4: Draft a summary from the notes made by you
 Writing down the summary in a specific number of words. In this case, the total number of words is a hundred and twenty. Note: remember to write the summary from the notes you have made, and try to stick to the word limit. The grid is for representational purposes and it can be drawn with a pencil and then rubbed off! Drawing a grid will help the student to stick to the word limit and a quick calculation will determine the number of rows and columns required. In this case the student is required to write a summary in 120 words, so eight columns and fifteen rows will give you 120 boxes in which you can write 120 words.
Strategic
planning
refers
to
a
plan
of
Action.
It
Is
an
important
tool
used
by
large
organisations
industries
nations
and
Individual.
It
Is
important
because
it
provides
a
balance
between
passivity
and
living
according
to

Plan.
Strategic
planning
leads
to
smartness
in
embracing
Opportunities.
Planning
Is
important
in
business
because
you
need
to
know
the
individual
and
you
need
to
maximise
Short-term
and
Long-term
Investments.
The
three
fundamental
activities
in
planning
include
creating
a
plan,
keeping
track
of
results
and
altering
course
based
on
results.
One
can
plan
for
a
complicated
life
by
picking
up
an
area
of
life
that
is
most
challenged
and
starting
to
plan
for
specific
areas.
When
one
area
is
Stabilized,
start
on
the
other!

Total 120 words

Important tips for the summary: 
The summary is made up entirely out of the notes.
Paraphrase rather than copy the exact words of the author of the passage.
Use liberal use of linkers, or connectors to reduce repetitions.
Don't compromise on fluency.
Write complete sentences, avoid using abbreviations and symbols.
Use third person narration, indirect speech and past tense where required.
Supply a suitable title, not in one word, but at least a couple of words or a phrase.
Do not exceed the word limit of 80 words.

Exercise 1
Read the following passage carefully:



By Jen Laskey/Medically reviewed by Sanjai Sinha, MD

1. Did you know that your body weight is approximately 60 per cent water? Your body uses water in all its cells, organs, and tissues to help regulate its temperature and maintian other bodily functions. Because your body loses water through breathing, sweating, and digestions, it's important to rehydrate by drinking fluids and eating foods that contain water. The amount of water you need depends on a variety of factors, including the climate you live in, how active you are, and whether you are experiencing an illness or have any other health problems.

2. Water does more than just quench your thirst and regulate your body's temperature; it also keeps the tissues in your body moist. You know how it feels when your eyes, nose, or mouth get dry! Keeping your body hydrated helps it retain optimum levesl of moisture in these sensitive areas, as well as in the blood, bones, and the brain. In addition, water helps protect the spinal cord, and it acts as a lubricant and cushion for your joints.

3. Adequate water intake enables your body to excrete waste through perspiration, urination, and defecation. The kidneys and liver use it to help flush out waste, as do your intestines. Water can also keep you from getting constipated by softening your stools and helping move food you've eaten through your intestinal tract. However, it should be noted that there is no evidence to prove that increasing your fluid intake will cure constipation.

4. Digestion starts with saliva, the basis of which is water. Digestions relies on enzymes that are found in saliva to help break down food and liquid and to dissolve minerals and other nutrients. Proper digestion makes minerals and nutrients more accessible to the body. Water is also necessary to help you digest soluble fiber. With the help of water, this fiber dissolves easily and benefits your bowel health by making well-formed, soft stools that are easy to pass.

5. Your body loses fluids when you engage in vigorous exercise, sweat in high heat, or come down with a fever or contract an illness that causes vomiting or diarrhea. If you're losing fluids or for any of these reasons, it is important to increase your fluid intake so that you can restore your body's natural hydration levels. Your doctor may alsor recommend that you drink more fluids to help treat other health conditions, like bladder infections and urinary tract stones. If you're pregnant or nursing, you may want to consult your physician about your fluid intake because your body will be using more fluids than usual, especially if you're breastfeeding.

6. There's no hard and fast rule, and many individuals meet their daily hydration needs by simply drinking water when they're thirsty, according to a report on nutrient recommendations from the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies. In fact, most people who are in good physical health get enough fluids by drinking water and other beverages when they are thirsty, and also by drinking a beverage with each of their meals, according to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention. If you are not sure about your hydration level, look at urine. If it is clear, you are in good shape. If It is dark, you are probably dehydrated.

1.Prepare notes on the above passage. Remember to supply a suitable title for the passage. (5 Marks)

2.Draft a summary in not more than 80 words for the above passage. (3 Marks)

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